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Thursday, October 20, 2016

The use of probiotic yeast in ruminant feed to reduce methane emission.

The climate change has propelled every one towards the journey to seek out better practices to save our world.Agriculture has been slammed as one of the major contributors to these changes,hence the call to practice smart agriculture. The world food day 2016 slogan says it all" climate is changing,food and agriculture must too".The race is on,to reduce the effect of agricultural practices on the climate while on the other hand produce enough food to feed the growing population without disrupting the ecosystems. The majority of emissions from livestock has been pinned on ruminants because of their flatulence and ruminal fermentation,that releases a lot of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The approach to reduce emissions through smart agriculture is taking different approaches such as enclosed cubicles for cattle to trap gases, feed management practices and addition of feed additives such as proboitic yeast. One of the challenges of a growing livestock sector is the contribution of livestock to the global greenhouse gas emission. Ruminants contribute to climate change by emitting greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide directly from enteric fermentation or indirectly from feed production activities and deforestation to create new pasture . These gas emission by these ruminants can be reduced by using feed additives such as probiotic yeast . The gas emission has a negative effect on the animals as well, it results in 2–12% of energy intake loss for the animal. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient feeding strategies to reduce methane production, which will beneficially affect the environment and will also improve nutrient digestion in the animal. In ruminants, probiotic yeast are used to manipulate the ruminal microbial population and thus ruminal fermentation to maximize the efficiency of feed utilization to further increase the productivity, in terms of milk, meat, and wool production. When feed utilization is increased, methane production can be reduced also, so to reduce methane emissions the key will be to increase feed utilization. The Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has published an extensive report on the production, impact and regulation of probiotics for animal nutrition, where they opined they can work, but their efficacy is highly variable.The ability of an organism to be an effective probiotic has also been found to be strain–specific and dosage dependent.